mikeash.com: just this guy, you know?

Posted at 2012-07-27 13:35 | RSS feed (Full text feed) | Blog Index
Next article: Friday Q&A 2012-08-10: A Tour of CommonCrypto
Previous article: Friday Q&A 2012-07-06: Let's Build NSNumber
Tags: fridayqna letsbuild objectivec
Friday Q&A 2012-07-27: Let's Build Tagged Pointers
by Mike Ash  

Last time on Friday Q&A, I discussed a hypothetical implementation of the NSNumber class. Starting on Mac OS X 10.7 and iOS 5, NSNumber uses a new runtime facility called tagged pointers to increase speed and reduce memory usage, the inner workings of which I want to examine today.

Pointer Alignment Theory
As we all know, a pointer is just an integer that's treated as an address in memory. Under the covers, a variable holding a pointer to an object is really just an integer holding a value like 0x7f84a41000c0. The pointer nature of this value is entirely in how the program uses in. In C, we can extract the integer value of a pointer with a simple cast:

    void *somePointer = ...;
    uintptr_t pointerIntegerValue = (uintptr_t)somePointer;

(The uintptr_t type is a standard C typedef for an integer type large enough to hold a pointer. This is useful, as pointer sizes will vary across platforms.)

Most computer architectures have a concept of pointer alignment. This means that a pointer to a particular data type should be a multiple of some power of two. For example, a pointer to a 4-byte integer should be a multiple of 4 on most architectures. Violating alignment restrictions can cause performance impacts (on some platforms, the attempt throws a hardware exception that has to be emulated by the OS) and, on certain performance-sensitive architectures, can just crash outright. Correct alignment is also required for things like atomic reads and writes to memory. In short, pointer alignment is important and something you want to respect.

If you make a local variable, the compiler can ensure that the alignment is correct:

    void f(void)
        int x;
        // x is aligned properly, because
        // the compiler has full control
        // over its location

However, things are not so simple for dynamically allocated memory:

    int *ptr = malloc(sizeof(*ptr));
    // is ptr aligned properly?

malloc has no idea what kind of data the program is going to be storing. It gets a request for 4 bytes (assuming that int is 4 bytes), but it has no idea if this is an int, a pointer (on 32-bit platforms), two shorts, four chars, or something else.

In order to ensure proper alignment, malloc takes a paranoid approach and returns pointers that are aligned to a boundary large enough to guarantee correct alignment no matter what data types are stored. On Mac OS X, malloc always returns pointers aligned to 16-byte boundaries.

Because of alignment, there are unused bits in any aligned pointer. The hex representation of a 16-byte aligned pointer looks like:


That last hex digit is always 0. It's possible to have a valid pointer that doesn't respect this (for example, a char * has no alignment restrictions), but object pointers will always have some zero bits at the end.

Tagged Pointer Theory
Some objects contain very little data. NSNumber is an excellent example of this: depending on exactly what kind of number the object is storing, the data it stores is only one, two, four, or eight bytes. Having an entire object dedicated to these, with memory allocation and deallocation, and indirecting through pointers to that object for every access, is wasteful.

What if we took advantage of those unused low bits in a pointer to indicate that this is not a real pointer? What if we then stored the object data inline in the rest of this non-pointer instead of off in a separate memory allocation? The result of doing so is a tagged pointer.

Systems which use tagged pointers require an extra check. Any time an object pointer is used, the system checks the low bit. If it's zero, it's a real object pointer and treated normally. If the low bit is one, then it can't be a real pointer, since it's not correctly aligned. In that case, the pointer is handled specially. Typically, the object type is encoded in the low bits of the pointer, with the object data in the high bits. A normal pointer will look like this:

        ^ all zeroes at the end

While a tagged pointer looks like this:

        ^ type encoded in bottom bits

There are variations on this. For example, a tagged pointer could have any of the bottom four bits set. You can have even more tag bits by taking advantage of additional architecture peculiarities. For example, x86_64 actually only uses 48 bits of a pointer, leaving you with 16 bits free on top of the 4 you get due to alignment. With this, you can do crazy things like stuff pointers into floating-point not a number values.

For whatever reason, the Objective-C implementation of tagged pointers has the bottom bit always set to 1 in a tagged pointer, with the other three bits indicating the class of the tagged pointer. I'm not sure why they chose to implement it in this way, but my guess is some combination between speed (it may be easier to check only the bottom bit, and this has to be done in the fast path of objc_msgSend) and simple convenience in programming.

Tagged Pointer Uses
Tagged pointers often show up in languages where everything is an object. When the number 3 is an object, and an expression like 3 + 4 involves two objects and creates a third, object creation and value extraction becomes important to performance.

We generally think of an object as a separate memory allocation, referenced with a pointer. This was always the case in Objective-C before tagged pointers came along, and is always the case in a lot of other languages as well. However, memory allocation and management incurs substantial overhead. When evaluating 3 + 4, the overhead of allocating memory for the result of 7 and then eventually disposing of it when nobody is using it far outweighs the cost of actually performing the addition.

Referring to everything with a pointer also incurs overhead simply for accessing the data. To load the value of the 3 object, the CPU has to load the value of the pointer to that object, then load the primitive 3 stored within the object itself. Since memory is slow, this extra access can be costly.

By using tagged pointers, these costs can be eliminated for data which fits within the tagged pointer. Small integers are an excellent candidate for this, since they can easily fit, and tend to be used a lot. The integer 3 would normally be represented like:

    0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011
                                         ^ binary 3

With tagged pointers, it would look something like this:

    0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011 1011
                                    ^  ^  ^ tag bit
                                    |  |
                                    |  tagged pointer class (5)
                                    binary 3

The actual value is shifted over a bit, and the tag bits are set appropriately. For this example, I've assumed that the integer class is identified by the value 5 in the tag bits, but that's entirely arbitrary, and it's up to the system to figure out the meaning of each value in the tag bits.

The observant reader will notice that the space left for storing the value is smaller than that of a plain integer. After using 4 bits for the tag, there are 28 bits left for a value on 32-bit systems, and 60 bits left for a value on 64-bit systems. Integers which require more than 28 or 60 bits to store can't be placed in a tagged pointer, and will have to be stored in a regular object.

When everything fits within the tagged pointer, there's no need for a separate memory allocation. This means no overhead to allocate or destroy the memory. No additional memory loads are needed, since all of the data is right there. There's a bit of extra overhead because some shifting and masking is needed to extract the 3, but CPUs are really fast at those operations and they're much faster than accessing a separate chunk of memory.

In addition to the speed benefits, this also reduces memory usage, since no separate chunk of memory has to be allocated to hold these integers. It's inconsequential for a single expression like 3 + 4, but it can make for a substantial savings in code that uses a lot of integers.

With the ability to use the tag bits distinguish between several classes of tagged pointers, it's possible to store more than just integers. Floating point numbers could be stored in tagged pointers as well. Even off-the-wall items like small strings could be stored. (A 64-bit pointer can hold eight ASCII characters in addition to the tag bits.) A one-element array holding a single (non-tagged) pointer to an object could be held in a tagged pointer. Any class which is both small and frequently used is a good candidate for a tagged pointer.

Although Objective-C has primitive integers and doesn't use objects for every single mathematical expression, numeric objects are still common in a lot of Objective-C code. Any time we put numbers into an array or dictionary, we have to use NSNumber to box them up into an object. Any time we encode or decode a property list or JSON we have to route all numbers through NSNumber. Since NSNumber is used a lot, and is mostly used to store numbers that fit within a tagged pointer, NSNumber is an excellent candidate for tagged pointers, and that's what Cocoa does. Tagged pointers are also used for suitable NSDate objects. Plenty of room is available for expansion to other uses as well.

Tagged Pointer Practice
Enough theory, let's write some code.

You'll recall my NSNumber workalike from last time, MANumber. I'm now going to add tagged pointer support to MANumber.

Note that tagged pointers are very, very, very private and cannot under any circumstances be used in any real code. There are an extremely limited number of tagged pointer classes. Since there are only three bits of tag available to indicate the class, only eight tagged classes can be used. If your tagged class conflicts with one in the frameworks, it's game over. Additionally, since details of the tagged pointer implementation aren't exposed through any public API, they're subject to change without notice. The meaning or number of the tag bits could change, or the whole thing could be thrown out if it's decided that it's not worth the trouble.

However, by using the appropriate private API, it is possible to experiment with tagged pointers, even if we can never use them safely.

In particular, the private _objc_insert_tagged_isa function allows associating a class with a particular tag. This is its prototype:

    void _objc_insert_tagged_isa(unsigned char slotNumber, Class isa);

You give it a slot number (tag) and a class, and it sets the appropriate table entry so that the two are associated in the runtime.

Nearly any tagged pointer class also needs a non-tagged class to go along with it. For this case, we need the regular MANumber to store integers that don't fit into a tagged pointer, and also to store double values, which are really hard to squeeze into a tagged pointer, and thus are something I skipped over. Depending on the value being stored, we either create a tagged pointer or allocate a normal instance.

There are two approaches here. One is to create two completely different classes, with some kind of common superclass so that they can share common code. The other is to use the same class for both, and have two code paths for tagged and non-tagged pointers whenever the code looks up internal data (like instance variables). I chose to go with the latter approach here, as it seemed simpler for this case.

For the most part, MANumber can stay the same. I routed some direct instance variable accesses through accessors in order to group the conditionalized code all in one place, but most of the class stayed the same. MANumber uses a union to store the actual value, which I found useful to break out so that it could be used to pass values around, and not just as an instance variable:

    union Value
        long long i;
        unsigned long long u;
        double d;

Next up are a bunch of constants used to manipulate the tagged pointer. First is the tagged pointer slot to use for MANumber, which I arbitrarily chose as 1:

    const int kSlot = 1;

I also put the number of tag bits into a constant, since it's used for encoding and decoding the tagged pointers:

    const int kTagBits = 4;

I decided to keep the same basic structure of MANumber in the tagged pointer. It stores a value as well as a type which says how to interpret that value. The type can be either an integer, unsigned integer, or double. Since everything needs to be packed as tighly as possible, I want to use the minimum number of bits to represent the type. Since there are three types, I set aside two bits to hold the type:

    const int kTypeBits = 2;

Note that although I'm not supporting double in the tagged pointer, I still reserve enough space to represent its type. This is done purely for consistency, and to make it easier to add double support at some point.

Finally, since the integer type we're storing is a long long, it's useful to know exactly how many bits that is:

    const int kLongLongBits = sizeof(long long) * CHAR_BIT;

I'm assuming in this code that long long is the size of a pointer. I did not attempt to create a 32-bit compatible version of the tagged pointer code.

To better manipulate tagged pointers, I wrote some helper functions. The first is a function that constructs a tagged MANumber pointer out of a value and type:

    static id TaggedPointer(unsigned long long value, unsigned type)

Recall the structure of a tagged pointer. The least significant bit is always 1. The next three bits are the tag, or slot, which indicates the class of the object. After that is the class's own data. In this case, the next two bits are the type, and everything after that is the value. Here's a line which squishes all of these components together using bitwise shifting and oring:

        id ptr = (__bridge id)(void *)((value << (kTagBits + kTypeBits)) | (type << kTagBits) | (kSlot << 1) | 1);

Note the odd double cast here. I'm building with ARC, which is picky about casting. You need __bridge when casting between object pointers and non-object pointers, and furthermore it won't allow casting between object pointers and integers at all. To convert between the integer version of the tagged pointer and the object version, I first have to cast the integer to a void *, and only then can I cast the result to an object.

That's all that needs to be done, so I return the newly constructed pointer:

        return ptr;

I also have a function that checks whether a pointer is tagged or not. All this involves is checking the least-significant bit, but ugly casting is needed to work around ARC's demands, so it was good to wrap it up in a single function:

    static BOOL IsTaggedPointer(id pointer)
        uintptr_t value = (uintptr_t)(__bridge void *)pointer;
        return value & 1;

Finally, there's a function to break a tagged pointer out into its components. Since C doesn't support multiple return values, I created a struct that holds the two values to return: the value and the type.

    struct TaggedPointerComponents
        unsigned long long value;
        unsigned type;

The function itself first converts the pointer into an integer, using the reverse of the weird double cast shown above:

    static struct TaggedPointerComponents ReadTaggedPointer(id pointer)
        uintptr_t value = (uintptr_t)(__bridge void *)pointer;

Next, it extracts the relevant fields. The tag bits themselves can be ignored, since they don't influence the MANumber's value or type. The MANumber value is extracted by just shifting the pointer down by the appropriate amount:

        struct TaggedPointerComponents components = {
            value >> (kTagBits + kTypeBits),

The type must be masked as well as shifted. The mask is generated by shifting 1 to the left by the number of tag bits, generating the binary value 100, then subtracting 1 from that value, resulting in the binary value 11. By doing a logical and with that value, we get rid of all bits in the pointer aside from the bits that represent the type:

            (value >> kTagBits) & ((1ULL << kTypeBits) - 1)

Now that the components are extracted, the function just returns them.

        return components;

At some point, we have to actually tell the runtime that we want to act as a tagged pointer class, by calling _objc_insert_tagged_isa. The obvious place to do this is in +initialize. I actually call this twice, once to clear out any previous entry, and again to insert the new entry. As a protective measure, the Objective-C runtime gets very upset if you try to directly overwrite an existing class in the tagged pointer table:

    + (void)initialize
        if(self == [MANumber class])
            _objc_insert_tagged_isa(kSlot, nil);
            _objc_insert_tagged_isa(kSlot, self);

Now we can get to actually constructing the tagged pointers. I wrote two new methods: +numberWithLongLong: and +numberWithUnsignedLongLong:. These will try to construct a tagged pointer from their argument if possible, and otherwise fall back to allocating an instance of the class.

These methods can only create a tagged pointer if the value is within certain limits. Namely, the value has to fit within kLongLongBits - kTagBits - kTypeBits bits, which is 58 bits on a 64-bit system. The largest long long that fits within that space is 257-1. The smallest long long that fits is -257. One bit is needed for the sign bit, since long long is signed. Based on this, we compute the min and max for a tagged long long:

    + (id)numberWithLongLong: (long long)value {
        long long taggedMax = (1ULL << (kLongLongBits - kTagBits - kTypeBits - 1)) - 1;
        long long taggedMin = -taggedMax - 1;

The rest is simple. If the value lies beyond the bounds, we simply do the regular alloc/init dance. If it's within bounds, we call TaggedPointer with the value and INT to construct the tagged pointer:

        if(value > taggedMax || value < taggedMin)
            return [[self alloc] initWithLongLong: value];
            return TaggedPointer(value, INT);

The code for unsigned long long is similar. There's only one limit in this case, and it's 258-1:

    + (id)numberWithUnsignedLongLong:(unsigned long long)value {
        unsigned long long taggedMax = (1ULL << (kLongLongBits - kTagBits - kTypeBits)) - 1;

        if(value > taggedMax)
            return [[self alloc] initWithUnsignedLongLong: value];
            return (id)TaggedPointer(value, UINT);

Next, we need a type accessor that handles tagged pointers, so that the rest of the code can simply call [self type] without worrying about bits and masking and such. This is pretty simple. All it has to do is call IsTaggedPointer, call ReadTaggedPointer if the pointer is tagged, and otherwise simply return the _type instance variable:

    - (int)type
            return ReadTaggedPointer(self).type;
            return _type;

There's also a value accessor, but it's a bit more complicated due to the need to handle sign extension in the resulting value. The first thing it does is check to see whether the pointer is tagged and, if it's not, return the _value instance variable:

    - (union Value)value
            return _value;

For tagged pointers, it first reads the value from ReadTaggedPointer. This pops out as an unsigned long long, and so needs some work in the event that the actual type is signed:

            unsigned long long value = ReadTaggedPointer(self).value;

It also creates a local variable of type union Value to hold the return value:

            union Value v;

If the value is unsigned, then life is simple: simply stuff value into v.

            int type = [self type];
            if(type == UINT)
                v.u = value;

However, signed integers get a bit more complex. The first thing it does is check the sign bit, which in this case lives in bit 57:

            else if(type == INT)
                unsigned long long signBit = (1ULL << (kLongLongBits - kTagBits - kTypeBits - 1));

If the sign bit is set, then all of the other bits in the number beyond 57 need to be set to 1 as well, in order for the resulting long long to be seen as a proper 64-bit negative number. This procedure is called sign extension, and it works this way due to the way that modern computers implement signed integers. The short version is that a negative number consists of all 1s at the beginning, and the first 0 is really the first significant digit of the number. To make a positive number wider, you simply add 0s to the left side. To make a negative number wider, you add 1s to the left side:

                if(value & signBit)
                    unsigned long long mask = (((1ULL << kTagBits + kTypeBits) - 1) << (kLongLongBits - kTagBits - kTypeBits));
                    value |= mask;

Nothing needs to be done for positive numbers, as they're already filled with extra 0s on the left side. All that needs to be done is to assign to the right field in v:

                v.i = value;

If the type is something else, then something has gone wrong, so check for that and abort:


Finally, return v:

            return v;

With this code in place, all of the other MANumber code works without any changes other than modifying it to call these accessors rather than directly accessing instance variables. You can mix and match tagged and untagged MANumber instances with impunity, and even use compare: and isEqual: on mixed objects.

Tagged pointers are a great addition to Cocoa and the Objective-C runtime which improve speed and reduce memory usage for NSNumber objects. By stuffing object data directly into the pointer, tagged pointers eliminate the need for a separate memory allocation and an extra level of indirection when retrieving values.

We can implement our own tagged pointer classes by using private runtime calls and some bit twiddling, which gives us some insight into just what NSNumber is doing behind the scenes. However, due to the restricted number of tagged pointer classes, it's not possible to safely use tagged pointers in our own code. They are purely a mechanism for Cocoa to perform better. They do this job wonderfully, and make NSNumber much less painful.

That's it for today! Come back next time for more crazy shenanigans. Friday Q&A is driven by reader suggestions, so if you have an idea for a topic that you'd like to see covered here, please send it in!

Did you enjoy this article? I'm selling whole books full of them! Volumes II and III are now out! They're available as ePub, PDF, print, and on iBooks and Kindle. Click here for more information.


Isn't even Apple using this just asking for trouble? I appreciate code performance improvements as much as the next person but do we really need to play such dangerous games?
I made a few experiments with Tagged Pointers a while ago on Lion.


One interesting finding is that although Apple did the "safe" thing with NSNumbers representing doubles, they went with all the trouble for NSDate : NSDate objects are conceptually equivalent to an NSTimeInterval (a double). If the double value "fits" in the 7 first bytes, the NSDate is actually a tagged pointer.
Richard Stacpoole: What exactly is dangerous about it? It's tricky, but if you do it correctly, it works fine.
It reminds me of when a lot of Mac software had to be rewritten to be "32-bit clean".
It is only dangerous if you break the API contract. In particular, direct access to the "isa" of an object was deprecated with the modern runtime. Since all of the other runtime functions (and NSObject API) are aware of tagged pointers, a tagged pointer behaves just like any other object when viewed through the public API.
Chris L: Fortunately, there's no possibility for such trouble here. Since the creation of tagged pointers is limited to Apple frameworks, they are free to change the implementation at will to suit any new architecture changes that occur, without breaking any third-party code.
It's worth noting that this optimisation is not really about saving memory. Yes, a tagged pointer NSNumber will use less memory than a "real" object, but the huge performance benefit comes from not having to allocate and deallocate objects.

Creating a new object is very, very expensive as compared to creating a local variable.

int a = 42;
int b = 128;
int c = a + b;

is literally "for free" compared to

id d = [[NSObject alloc] init];

Allocation has to call malloc, which has to thread safe, may go off and mess with the virtual memory system etc. Then the object has to be initialised etc. There's a lot going on there that you don't see. Creating a tagged pointer for an NSNumber is orders of magnitude faster because it doesn't have to do any of that.
I was also thinking of the work done to make 32 bit clean code.
Not using any bits above the 48bits the hardware can read will help with this. I just hope that tricks like this don't lead to other problems in the future.
Thanks for the replies.
Thank you for a great article, Mike!
Here is the russian version of the Theory part)
Historical note - there were systems (the Control Data Cyber 205 was one) in which pointers had no alignment restrictions - pointers were 64-bit (the native word size of the machine) but were BIT-aligned. The C205 didn't have a rotate or bit-shift instruction. If you wanted such a result, you simply set your pointer to the correct bit of the word and read (or wrote) the data that way. Yeah, there would be a performance-hit (3 clocks instead of 1 for the read or write, IIRC) if your pointer & 0x40 was non-zero, and you had to be careful if you didn't want to affect the next word in memory, but it would work.
Hmm so you come up with a language/framework where you declare that everything is an object ... And then you go ahead and implement incredibly system specific and non portable hacks because it turns out that making everything into an object makes your code crawl.

Warmi: I don't think that's an accurate characterization. These are still objects, they're just objects that can be stored directly within the pointer. As for system-specific non-portable hacks, that's true but also applies to everything your compiler outputs, as well as a good chunk of the runtime. (The objc_msgSend is written in assembly, and is definitely not portable.)

Not everything has to be portable. Tagged pointers can be turned off at the flip of a switch and everything keeps working fine, just a bit more slowly, so there's literally no risk here. If Apple introduces a platform where the current code doesn't work, they can either fix it up to work there, or they can turn it off.

I'm a bit surprised by the negative reactions to this stuff from some of the commenters. This is an ancient and time-honored technique that has many upsides and no downside whatsoever the way Apple implemented it, aside from the (relatively minor) engineering time needed to build it.
Mike, a very lucid explanation (as always).

For anybody interested in another implementation of this idea, I recommend reading http://www.lua.org/doc/jucs05.pdf which describes Lua's implementation. Section 3 of the paper describes how values are represented. The paper is a little out of date--it describes Lua 5.0; the current version is 5.2. For specific details, Lua's source is quite readable. The relevant portion is found at http://www.lua.org/source/5.2/lobject.h.html.
A less historic bit addressable machine then the C205 would be the TI34010 and TI34020 which are a late 1980's, early 1990's combination of a general purpose CPU and a graphics processor.

There was even a C compiler available. More then one in fact.

Well technically those are the CPUs, the machines would be all of MicroProse's arcade line (F-15 Strike Eagle, B.O.T.T.S., the tank game that I worked on but can't remember the name of), and also NARC and Hard Drivin' (which at the time I thought was a 680x0 with custom microcode, but I guess I was mistaken).

Of corse in addition to being bit addressable these machines also had polygon painting instructions :-)
"For whatever reason, the Objective-C implementation of tagged pointers has the bottom bit always set to 1 in a tagged pointer, with the other three bits indicating the class of the tagged pointer. I'm not sure why they chose to implement it in this way"

This is how every implementation of tagged pointers I've seen works. How else would you implement it?
Alex: If your pointers are 16-byte aligned, then a tagged pointer could be identified by having any of the lower four bits be non-zero. That would allow for 15 tagged classes, rather than only 8 as the Objective-C implementation does.

One problem is that pointers aren't necessarily 16-byte aligned. Objects allocated on the heap are, but things like class pointers or constant strings may not be. You should at least be able to count on 8-byte alignment on a 64-bit CPU, so you could identify a tagged pointer based on any of the lower three bits being 1.

I'd speculate that only checking the least significant bit is faster (and this is an operation that has to be done as part of the message sending fast path) and Apple probably doesn't really need more than 8 tagged classes anyway, at least for now.

Comments RSS feed for this page

Add your thoughts, post a comment:

Spam and off-topic posts will be deleted without notice. Culprits may be publicly humiliated at my sole discretion.

The Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything?
Formatting: <i> <b> <blockquote> <code>.
NOTE: Due to an increase in spam, URLs are forbidden! Please provide search terms or fragment your URLs so they don't look like URLs.
Code syntax highlighting thanks to Pygments.
Hosted at DigitalOcean.